Family of Dost Mohammed Khan (1793–1863)
October 31, 1879
Ulugh Beg III 1877-1881
This photograph of the family of Dōst Moḥammad Khān (1793–1863) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Dōst Moḥammad was the predominant Afghan political figure of the mid-19th century. He brought the Barakzai Dynasty to power and ruled Afghanistan, at various times, for more than 30 years, gradually extending his rule from Kabul to the entire country. He is seated slightly to the right of center in this photograph. To Dōst Moḥammad’s right, the first figure in a white chapan (overcoat) is his son and successor, Sher ʻAlī Khān (1825–79), who ruled Afghanistan from 1863 to 1879. Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901), the grandson of Dōst Mohammad and future “Iron Amir” of Afghanistan, is on Dōst Moḥammad’s far left. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British India.
The first phase of the war ended in May 1879 with the Treaty of Gandamak, which permitted the Afghans to maintain internal sovereignty but forced them to cede control over their foreign policy to the British. Fighting resumed in September 1879, after an anti-British uprising in Kabul, and finally concluded in September 1880 with the decisive Battle of Kandahar. The album includes portraits of British and Afghan leaders and military personnel, portraits of ordinary Afghan people, and depictions of British military camps and activities, structures, landscapes, and cities and towns. The sites shown are all located within the borders of present-day Afghanistan or Pakistan (a part of British India at the time). About a third of the photographs were taken by John Burke (circa 1843–1900), another third by Sir Benjamin Simpson (1831–1923), and the remainder by several other photographers. Some of the photographs are unattributed. The album possibly was compiled by a member of the British Indian government, but this has not been confirmed. How it came to the Library of Congress is not known.
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