Tarikh-i-Sultan Mahmud-i-Ghaznavi, or, The history of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Mirza Firuz Shah
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Jahangir II 1920-1948
Firishtah, Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Astarabadi
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Royal Mughal Ref:
Mahmud of Ghazni (October 2, 971 � April 30, 1030 C.E.), also known as Yamin ad-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ad-Dawlah Abd al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Seb�k Tigin), was the ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire from 997 C.E. until his death. Mahmud Ghazni turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which included modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, most of Iran and parts of northwest India. He was also the first ruler to carry the title Sultan. He is remembered as a hero of Islam by some, as a defiler of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist shrines by others (this legacy may have contributed to the destruction of ancient Buddhist shrines by the taliban in Afghanistan in 2001, although other Muslims opposed this destruction). In any case, in the long run, no believer will be proud of historical attacks or destruction of other people's religion and sacred places. By establishing Muslim rule over a substantial part of the Indian Sub-Continent, he permanently changed the nature of subcontinental politics, religion, and culture. Arguably, the partition of India into the Muslim majority and Hindu majority states of Pakistan and India in 1947, was a consequence of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni's military success.
when the Sultan Mehmud Ghaznavi was free from his war against his brother, he set his face to Balkh ; and on account of this, that the Governorship of Khorasan (which) was his by right, had been entrusted to (one) Baktozan, he sent a messenger to Bokhara to Amir Mansur and explained his dissatisfaction to him.
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