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Captured Mappila prisoners taken after a battle with the colonial army.

December 31, 1922
Mirza Firuz Shah
Jahangir II 1920-1948

Captured Mappila prisoners taken after a battle with the colonial army.



Mappila (Moplah rebels) captured after a battle with British colonial troops, during 1921-22 Mappila Uprising. This image falls into the public domain as it was taken in India prior to 1 January 1951, and was not published in India after that date. It is in public domain in the United States as well as it was taken prior to 1 January 1923. The Malabar rebellion happened in August 20, 1921 – 1922 in the Malabar region of Kerala, India.The Malabar rebellion of 1921 (also known by the names Moplah riots, Mappila riots) started as a resistance against the British colonial rule in Malabar region of Kerala, India, but later turned into communal violence against the Hindus.The popular uprising was also against the prevailing feudal system controlled by elite Hindus and in favour of the Khilafat Movement.The British had appointed high caste Hindus in positions of authority to get their support, this led to the protest turning against the Hindus. For many scholars, the rebellion is primarily a peasant revolt against the colonial government. During the uprising, the rebels also attacked various symbols and institutions of the colonial state, such as telegraph lines, train stations, courts and post offices.The main leaders of the rebellion were Ali Musliyar, Variankunnath Kunjahammad Haji, Sithi Koya Thangal, M. P. Narayana Menon, Chembrasery Thangal, K. Moideenkutti Haji, Kappad Krishnan Nair,Konnara Thangal, Pandiyatt Narayanan Nambeesan, and Mozhikunnath Brahmadathan Nambudiripad. There were a series of clashes between the Mappila peasantry and their landlords, supported by the colonial government, throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. The heavy-handed suppression of the Khilafat Movement by the colonial government was met by resistance in the Eranad and Valluvanad taluks of Malabar. In the initial stages, the movement had the support of Mohandas Gandhi and other Indian nationalist leaders, and a number of clashes took place between Khilafat volunteers and other religious communities, but the violence soon spread across the region.The Mappilas attacked and took control of police stations, colonial government offices, courts and government treasuries.Though the crowds who attacked and destroyed the public offices in Eranad, Valluvanad, and Ponnani Taluks were Mappilas, sometimes Nambudiris, Nairs and Thiyyas also acted as leaders in many parts of Valluvanad. British historians, on the other hand, referred to the rebellion as the Mappila revolt.


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