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Akbar III 1948-2012
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Collection Name: An Historical Atlas of Central Asia book


Date: 1944 | Short Title: . | Publisher: | Publisher Location:----

Type: Atlas Map

Place : Central Asia

Full Title:
An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel. This is stated on Page no 07 of this book.


The first Persian campaign into Central Asia took place in 530 B.C. under Cyrus II, who tried to subdue the Massagetae living at that time, apparently, east of the Caspian Sea; in this campaign Cyrus’ army was utterly defeated and he was killed. The route of the campaign and the place of the battle are unknown, but the year 530 B.C. is the first firmly established date of Central Asian history. Some time after the death of Cyrus his conquests in Central Asia (and elsewhere) were lost by the Achaemenids, but they were completely recovered by Darius II in 522 B.C. (the second firmly attested date in Central Asian history), after which he also subdued a part of the Sakas. After that all the sedentary regions of western Central Asia as well as some of the Saka lands remained as satrapies (provinces) of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus (III, 92-93), Bactria formed the 12th satrapy of the empire, while the Parthians, Chorasmians, Arians, and Soghdians were included into the 16th satrapy.
The Central Asian satrapies remained a part of the Achaemenid empire until the end of its existence, with the exception of Chorasmia (Khorezm) which became independent at the beginning of the 4th century B.C.; Central Asian contingents served in the Achaemenid army.

Of special importance for the future history of Central Asia was the Greek colonization that already
accompanied the military campaigns and continued after them Alexander settled military colonists, probably veterans, who came with him from Greece and Macedonia, in the newly established garrisons, citadels, and towns that were founded for military, administrative, or commercial purposes and then mostly became provincial centers; some of them took the place of already existing towns that were now populated (or repopulated) by the colonists. They became known under the designation of Alexandria. Out of seventy of them mentioned in the sources, the following were in Central Asia: Alexandria of Margiana, the capital of Margiana (on the site of the later Merv; however, some scholars doubt that such an Alexandria actually existed, because Alexander never came to Margiana); Alexandria in Ariana, capital of Ariana (Areia), identified with Hare/Herat; Alexandria of Bactriana, identified with Bactra/Bahl/Balkh; Alexandria ad Caucasum, capital of Paropamisadai, usually identified with Begram (according to some, with either Bamiyan or Charikar); Alexandria on the Oxus, identified with the archeological site Ay-Khanum (see map 2); Alexandria Eschatae (“the Farthest”; possibly near, or on the site of, modern Khojend on the Sïr-Darya). The main area of Greek colonization in Central Asia was Bactria, and it was there that a new Hellenistic culture, based on a fusion of local and Greek traditions, developed.

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Ismail Mazari

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Very good information.

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Shah Sharaf Barlas

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If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.


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