India Under British Raj 1860
Mirza Firuz Shah
Humayun II 1858-1877
The British Raj (/rɑːdʒ/; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown primarily on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India.The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and areas ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The region was sometimes called the Indian Empire, though not officially.
Formally, India was not a colony but a separate realm sharing a Monarch (the King-Emperor or Queen-Empress) with Britain. Thus, though ruled by a British Viceroy, "India" was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. In both World Wars, Britain's declaring war on Germany did not automatically apply to India and a separate declaration of war by India was needed. The Indian Army was a completely distinct armed force – British-commanded but separate from the British Army and with its own chain of command.
This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India). It lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern part of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh in 1971). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was already a part of British India; Upper Burma was added in 1886, and the resulting union, Burma (Myanmar), was administered as an autonomous province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony, gaining its own independence in 1948.
"India," from 'The Imperial Atlas of Modern Geography; an extensive Series of Maps, etc. by W.G. Blackie, Ph.D., F.R.G.S., Editor of the "Imperial Gazetteer".' London: Blackie and Son, Warwick Square, E.C.; Glasgow and Edinburgh. 1860. Printed by W. G. Blackie and Co. Printers, Villafield, Glasgow.
The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry. This area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden (from 1858 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867). Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948. The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency.
Among other countries in the region, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798. The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; however, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined.The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India.
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Very good information.
Shah Sharaf Barlas
If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.