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Magnetic Inclining and Dipping Needles During Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan 1627–1658

Mirza Firuz Shah
Shah Jahan 1627–1658
Stacked Wooden Logs


Magnetic Inclining and Dipping Needles this Map found in Katip Celebi- Cihanumma, Mustafa bin Abdullah Haji Khalifa is a Chalabi wrote in his book

Dip circles (also dip needles) are used to measure the angle between the horizon and the Earth's magnetic field (the dip angle). They were used in surveying, mining and prospecting as well as for the demonstration and study of magnetism.

Georg Hartmann first discovered dip angle in 1544, when he noticed the needle on a compass dipped towards the north hemisphere. Rather than explore this phenomenon, Hartmann sought ways to eliminate it. However, Robert Norman around 1576 investigated dip angle further and in 1581 described in print a device to measure this phenomenon.[1]

Early dip circles were not accurate and gave poor results. Over the next 300 years many improvements were made, including reducing the friction between the needle and its pivot and encasing the circle in glass. Between the late 18th century and late 19th century the design approached its peak. Improvements which made the dip circle a practical aid for polar navigation were made by Robert Were Fox FRS, who developed in the 1830s the first dip circle that could be used on board a moving ship. Another important improvement to the instrument was developed in the 1830s by the Dublin physicist Humphrey Lloyd, who devised a way of attaching a magnetic needle at right-angles to the dip needle in order to measure the intensity of force (by seeing the extent to which the right-angle needle deflected the dip-needle).

By World War I the most advanced dip circles were being made. With the development of electronic systems dip circles became obsolete.

Magnetic dip, dip angle, or magnetic inclination is the angle made with the horizontal by the Earth's magnetic field lines. This angle varies at different points on the Earth's surface. Positive values of inclination indicate that the magnetic field of the Earth is pointing downward, into the Earth, at the point of measurement, and negative values indicate that it is pointing upward. The dip angle is in principle the angle made by the needle of a vertically held compass, though in practice ordinary compass needles may be weighted against dip or may be unable to move freely in the correct plane. The value can be measured more reliably with a special instrument typically known as a dip circle.

Dip angle was discovered by the engineer Georg Hartmann in 1544.[1] A method of measuring it with a dip circle was described by Robert Norman in England in 1581

Magnetic dip results from the tendency of a magnet to align itself with lines of magnetic field. As the Earth's magnetic field lines are not parallel to the surface, the north end of a compass needle will point downward in the northern hemisphere (positive dip) or upward in the southern hemisphere (negative dip). The range of dip is from -90 degrees (at the North Magnetic Pole) to +90 degrees (at the South Magnetic Pole).[3] Contour lines along which the dip measured at the Earth's surface is equal are referred to as isoclinic lines. The locus of the points having zero dip is called the magnetic equator or aclinic line.

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Ismail Mazari

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Very good information.

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Shah Sharaf Barlas


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