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Akbar III 1948-2012
Stacked Wooden Logs


An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel. This is stated on Page no 25 of this book.

With the demise of the Samanids in 999 (see maps 11-12), the territory of their state was divided between Mahmud b. Sebük-Tegin of Ghazna and the Qarakhanid Nasr b.
#Ali, who agreed that the Amu-Darya should be the boundary between the two states. Despite this agreement, the Qarakhanids invaded the territory south of the Amu-Darya, but were decisively defeated by Mahmud in a battle at Balkh in 1008, after which they made no further attempt to attack Mahmud’s territory. Mahmud spent his entire reign in relentless campaigning against the neighbors of his kingdom in all directions. After securing his position in Khorasan, he extended his control over the former vassals of the Samanids in the south of their kingdom (Juzjan, Gharchistan, Khuttal, and Sistan). He sent three expeditions to conquer the mountainous region of Ghur, in the upper course of the Harirud, which had remained pagan and independent until then, and the local chieftains became his vassals.
In 1017 Mahmud found a pretext for intervening in the affairs of Khorezm, where the family of the amirs of Gurganj had ruled since 995; Khorezm was conquered after fierce fighting, and Mahmud installed as
governor (but with the traditional title of Khorezmshah) a former ghulam of his father Sebük-Tegin named Altuntash. In the west, Mahmud fought the Buyids, a Shi#ite dynasty who ruled a vast empire in western and central Iran and Iraq and controlled the #Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad.
Although Buyid power was diminishing in the first half of the 11th century, Mahmud turned his attention to them only at the end of his reign, when he captured Rayy, subdued the Musafirid rulers of Daylam, and then sent his son Mas#ud to attack other Buyid vassals; this operation, however, was interrupted by Mahmud’s death in 1030. After Khorasan and Tokharistan were secured for Mahmud, the main destination of Mahmud’s military campaigns was India. These campaigns (17 in number) reached as far south as Kalinjar and Somnath, but only Panjab and Sind were annexed. The main goal of Mahmud’s Indian campaigns was plunder, and they brought him enormous booty which allowed him to maintain a large army.

Mahmud was a despotic ruler whose power rested upon the army and a large bureaucratic apparatus and whose rule was supported by spoils from his Indian campaigns.
The central administrative system in his empire was inherited from the Samanids and further developed under his own rule, so that for later Islamic writers the Ghaznavid state became a model of a well organized and highly centralized bureaucracy, with a professional salaried standing army.
Mahmud also stressed his role as a champion of Islamic orthodoxy, a protector and promoter of Sunnite Islam fighting the Shiite Buyids, the Ismailism of Multan, and Hindu “idolaters.” It was also Mahmud Ghaznavi who began to be styled “sultan,” although “sultan”
became the official title of the Ghaznavid rulers only beginning with Mahmud’s grandson. Mahmud and Masoud also continued the Samanid tradition of patronizing arts and literature (Firdawsi presented the Shah-nama to him), and their court in Ghazna was a great cultural center.But the mighty state created by Mahmud suffered a severe blow from the Seljuk Turkmens just ten years after Mahmud’s death.

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Shah Sharaf Barlas

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If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.

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If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.


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