THE PRINCIPAL GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES AND PROVINCES During Mughal Emperor Akbar III 1948-2012
Akbar III 1948-2012
Collection Name: An Historical Atlas of Central Asia book
Author: YURI BREGEL
Date: 1944 | Short Title: . | Publisher: S. G. Klyashtorny, | Publisher Location:----
Type: Atlas Map
Place : Central Asia
An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel. This is stated on Page no 03 of this book.
Central Asia as defined for this publication (see the Preface) consists of two major geographical areas: the western part that includes the Turan plain east of the Caspian Sea and the Kazakh Upland north of it, stretching eastward to the foot of the Tien-Shan and Pamir-Alay mountains and southward to the Kopet-Dagh mountains; and the eastern part that includes the high plateaus of the Tarim basin and the Junghar basin (separated from one
another by the Tien-Shan mountains, while the Tarim basin is separated from the even higher Tibetan plateau by the Kunlun range). These two main parts of Central Asia are often conveniently called Western and Eastern Turkestan (cf. below). The mountain systems that lie between the western and the eastern parts of Central Asia are formed by the ranges radiating from the Pamirs mostly on east-west axes. The highest peaks in these mountains
reach 7,496 m in the Darvaz chain (in Western Turkestan) and 7,719 m in the Kongur chain (in Eastern Turkestan). Some of these ranges made the movement of people in a longitudinal direction (especially in the Pamir-Alay) difficult, but these barriers were mostly not impenetrable.
Central Asia as a whole is characterized by an extreme continental climate, with high aridity that increases from north to south and from the mountains to the plains. Accordingly, Central Asia is divided into three main natural regions: steppe, desert, and mountains. The steppe zone, which lies approximately north of the Aral Sea, the Sïr-Darya river, and the Tien-Shan mountains, is a part of the great steppe belt stretching across the Eurasian continent from Manchuria in the east to Hungary in the west. The northern part of the steppe consists of grasslands that gradually become foreststeppe bordering the Siberian forest (taiga) in the north; most of the steppe belt is, however, semidesert or desert-steppe, with very few rivers, sparse vegetation, and some salt pans and salt lakes. South of the steppe belt lies the desert zone, which occupies the largest part of Central Asia and encompasses three major deserts, the Qara-qum, Qïzïl-qum, and Taqla-Makan, as well as a number of smaller areas of sand desert, and the dry Üst-Yurt plateau. With the exception of the Irtïsh river and its left tributaries that belong to the Arctic Ocean drainage and flow through the northern grasslands, all Central Asian rivers are of internal drainage. In the western part of Central Asia, two major rivers, the Amu-Darya and the Sïr-Darya, flow, respectively, from the Pamirs and the Tien-Shan to the north-west and empty into the Aral Sea (but cf. map 47). In the eastern part the main river is the Tarim, with its tributaries that rise in the Kunlun, Pamir-Alay, and Tien-Shan mountains; it falls into the “wandering” lake Lop-nor (a remnant of an ancient Lop Sea). Other rivers that do not belong to the basins of the Amu-Darya, Sïr-Darya, and Tarim dry up in blind deltas in the sands. All major Central Asian rivers are fed by melting snow in the mountains (in spring) and especially the melting ice of numerous mountain glaciers (in summer). The Amu-Darya, in its lower course, has changed its riverbed repeatedly. In prehistoric times it probably fell into the Caspian Sea, instead of the Aral Sea; the dry bed known as Uzboy is the remainder of this ancient course, and the flow of water through it, at least partially, was renewed several times during the historic period, most notably in the early 13th and late 14th centuries. The delta of the Amu-Darya was characterized by frequent changes in the direction and configuration of the various arms of the river (sometimes these changes were man-made). For a certain time during the first and early second millenium A.D. the Amu-Darya and the Sïr-Darya had a common delta, and later on the arms of the Sïr-Darya delta would also change their configuration. The Tarim also had a migratory delta whose arms would change and sometimes entirely dry up.
Most of the Central Asian plains in the desert zone have a very fertile yellow loess soil, but, because of the extremely dry climate, it can be used for agriculture only with the help of artificial irrigation (dry farming has existed mostly in the piedmont areas, but it has never been of major importance). Such agriculture developed in the central parts of Central Asia since the second millenium B.C., and it has remained the economic basis of the Central Asian civilization. At about the same time, pastoralist stock-breeding developed in the steppe areas. The sedentary population lived in oases in the irrigated river basins, which became the centers of agriculture and urban life, while the stock-breeders nomadized in the steppes.These two groups were never isolated from one another, however, and, in many ways, they were dependent on one another. The urban centers in the oases developed a sophisticated civilization whose influence spread far into the steppes. But militarily and politically the nomads were predominant for many centuries, due to their superior mobility and military prowess.
A separate part of the steppe belt of Western Turkestan is the region between the Tien-Shan in the south and Lake Balkhash in the north known under its Turkic name Yeti-su (or Zheti-su) or, in Western literature, under the Russian version of this name, “Semirech’e”—literally, “Seven rivers.”
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Very good information.
Shah Sharaf Barlas
If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.