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THE SASANIDS SOGHD AND THE FIRST TÜRK QAGHANATE

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1994
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YURI BREGEL
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Geography
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Akbar III 1948-2012
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Description

Collection Name: An Historical Atlas of Central Asia book

Author: YURI BREGEL

Date: 1944 | Short Title: . | Publisher: D. Sinor | Publisher Location:----

Type: Atlas Map

Place : Central Asia

Full Title:
An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel.
Note:-

"An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel. This is stated on Page no14 of this book.


In the middle of the 6th century a new nomadic state, the Türk Qaghanate, emerged in Mongolia; it played a major role in the history of Central Asia.Its origin is usually traced back to the clan Ashina (this name is known only from Chinese sources), which was among a group of the late Xiongnu tribes that lived in the region of Turfan during the first half of the 5th century. In 460 they were attacked by the Rouran, who resettled them to the Altay region. Here the Ashina gradually united under their leadership some local tribes, and the new confederation which initially included ten (later twelve) tribes adopted the name Türk (whose etymology is unclear and has more than one explanation). Initially they were tributaries of the Rouran, but after 534, when Bumïn became their chieftain, they moved farther east, to the Yellow River, and in 545 they established an alliance with the Chinese dynasty of the Western Wei (of Xianbi origin). After this Bumïn subdued a large group of Turkic-language tribes farther north, who called themselves Oghuz and whom the Chinese called Tiele, and then defeated and destroyed the Rouran. In 551 Bumïn was proclaimed the supreme ruler of the Türk and adopted the title qaghan that was previously the title of the Rouran rulers. Hence the nomadic empire founded by the Ashina dynasty is called in modern literature the Türk Qaghanate.

From the very beginning, the Qaghanate had a bipartite structure, as was characteristic of many Inner Asian tribal confederations and nomadic states, from the Xiongnu down to the Mongols: it was divided into two wings, the eastern and the western, each with its own Qaghan, and while the Qaghan of the eastern wing, whose center of power was in Mongolia, was the supreme ruler, the Qaghan of the western wing was nominally his coruler, with the title of Yabghu-Qaghan; the Yabghu-Qaghan belonged to the junior line of the Ashina clan. The tribes of the western wing formed ten administrative units called oq ‘arrow’, and they were divided, in turn, into two groups, whose names are known only from the Chinese sources: the western, Nushibi, and the eastern, Dulu. A similar division of tribes into the western (Tardush) and the eastern (Tölis) wings also existed in the eastern wing of the Qaghanate.

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Very good information.

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