COLLECTION OF PORTRAITS OF MUGHAL EMPERORS MADE BY COLONEL GENTIL (SULTAN AL-'AZAM WAL KHAQAN AL-MUKARRAM ZAHIR UD-DIN MUHAMMAD JALAL UD-DIN BABUR PADSHAH GHAZI [FIRDAUS-MAKANI], EMPEROR OF HINDUSTAN) THIS WORK WAS DONE
December 31, 1773
Mirza Firuz Shah
Shah Alam II 1759–1806
Babur (Persian: بابر, romanized: Bābur, lit. 'tiger'; 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty (r. 1526–1530) in the Indian subcontinent. He was a descendant of Taimur and Changez Khan through his father and mother respectively. He was also given the posthumous name of Firdaws Makani ('Dwelling in Paradise').
Of Chagatai Turkic origin, Babur was born in Andijan in the Fergana Valley (in present-day Uzbekistan): the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza (1456–1494, governor of Fergana from 1469 to 1494) and a great-great grandson of Timur (1336–1405). Babur ascended the throne of Fergana in its capital Akhsikent in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose Fergana soon after. In his attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501 his attempt to recapture both the regions failed when Muhammad Shaybani Khan defeated him. In 1504 he conquered Kabul, which was under the putative rule of Abdur Razaq Mirza, the infant heir of Ulugh Beg II. Babur formed a partnership with the Safavid ruler Ismail I and reconquered parts of Turkistan, including Samarkand, only to again lose it and the other newly conquered lands to the Sheybanids.
After losing Samarkand for the third time, Babur turned his attention to India. At that time, some parts of Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi of the Afghan Lodi dynasty. While much of Rajasthan, Malwa and Northern Gujarat were under control of Rana Sanga with his capital at Chittor. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE and founded the Mughal empire. He faced his strongest opposition from Sisodia king Rana Sanga (whom Babur called greatest Indian king of that time along with Krishnadevaraya) Sanga unified several Rajput clans first time after Prithviraj Chauhan and advanced with a grand coalition of 100,000 Rajputs. However, Sanga suffered a major defeat in Battle of khanwa due to Babur's skillfull positioning of troops and modern tactics. The battle was more historic and eventful than First Battle of Panipat in Indian history as it established Mughal Empire which dominated much of Indian subcontinent for next two centuries.
Babur married several times. Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza. Babur died in 1530 in Agra and Humayun succeeded him. Babur was first buried in Agra but, as per his wishes, his remains were moved to Kabul and reburied. He ranks as a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Many of his poems have become popular folk songs. He wrote the Baburnama in Chaghatai Turkic; it was translated into Persian during the reign (1556–1605) of his grandson, the Emperor Akbar.
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