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Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I

December 31, 1723
Mirza Firuz Shah
Muhammad Shah 1720–1748




Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (20 August 1671 – 1 June 1748) also known as Chin Qilich Kamaruddin Khan, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah and Nizam I, was the 1st Nizam of Hyderabad. A trusted nobleman and General of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (1677–1707 AD), he served as the Mughal governor of Deccan (1713–1715 AD) and (1720–1722 AD), Mughal Grand vizier (1721–1724 AD) and the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty (1724 AD) of which he was the Nizam I (1724–1748 AD). Background Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan (also known as Nizam) was the son of Safia Khanum and Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung I, who were married in 1670. Nizams's mother Safia Khanum was the daughter of Sa’dullah Khan who was Grand vizier (1645-1656) of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, during his tenure construction of Taj Mahal was completed. While through his father he is a descendant of Abu Bakr the first caliph of Islam, his ancestry is traced from Shihab al-Din 'Umar al-Suhrawardi (1145–1234). His great-grandfather Alam Sheikh was a Sufi saint of Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) he was titled as Azam ul Ulama by Imam Quli Khan (1611–1642) of Khanate of Bukhara. His grandfather Kilich Khan hailed from Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan. In 1654, Kilich Khan came to India for the first time while on his way to the Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage) during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. After completing the pilgrimage, he migrated to India and joined erstwhile Mughal prince Aurangzeb's army in Deccan in 1657. Khan fought in the Battle of Samugarh which ended with the defeat of Aurangzeb's brother Dara Shikoh. Besides being a commander in Aurangzeb's army, he also served as governor of Zafarabad (present-day Bidar). Khan's eldest son and Nizam-ul-Mulk's father was Feroze Jung. Jung migrated to India in 1669, and got employed in Aurangzeb's army, raised a General and later as governor of Gujarat. Early life Nizam-ul-Mulk was born on 11 August 1671. He was named Qamaruddin Khan by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. There exists no record of his birthplace. However, Yousuf Hussain Khan opines that Nizam-ul-Mulk was born in Agra. At the age of six, Nizam-ul-Mulk was awarded with a mansab. During his youth, he Nizam-ul-Mulk used to accompany his father to military expeditions. After distinguishing himself during an expedition with his father to Pune, Nizam-ul-Mulk received a rank of 400 zat and 100 horses in 1684. In 1688, he took part in the siege of Adoni fort under the leadership of his father. Aurangzeb increased his rank to 2,000 zat and 500 horses for his performance in the siege. Two years later, he was awarded with the title Chin Qilich Khan. The emperor also presented him a she-elephant. In 1693, the Marathas sieged the Panhala Fort. In response, Nizam-ul-Mulk fought and defeated the Marathas at Karad. 30 Marathas were taken as prisoners. In 1698, Aurangzeb sent Nizam-ul-Mulk to put down a revolt at Nagori, near Bijapur. The emperor was satisfied with his expedition and subsequently sent him to Kotha to restore order. Following his success, he was raised to a rank of 3,000 zat and 500 horses. In 1699 Aurangzeb promoted him to 3,500 zat and 3,000 horses. Nizam-ul-Mulk successfully sieged the Panhala Fort which was occupied by the Marathas. He closed all the roads as a result of which no supply could reach the inhabitants. The fort fell to his forces on 9 June 1700. Satisfied with his services, Aurangzeb made him the faujdar (garrison commander) of Bijapur and increased his rank by 400 horses. Nizam-ul-Mulk became the subahdar (governor) of Bijapur in 1702 and was awarded with a steed. In the same year, he was also given the faujdari of Azamnagar and Belgaum. In 1704, he became the faujdar of Nusratabad and Mudgal. In 1705, Nizam-ul-Mulk accompanied Aurangzeb in the siege of Wakinkhera. Nizam-ul-Mulk led an assault in the hillock of Lal Tikri. He attacked the Marathas who were attempting to provide supplies to the besieged inhabitants. The Marathas were ultimately defeated. Nizam-ul-Mulk was raised to a rank of 5,000 zat and 5,000 horses for his performance in the siege. He was also awarded with a jewelled sabre and an elephant. Personal life Asaf Jah was married to Sayed-UnNissa Begum, who belonged to a Sayed family from Gulbargah-with this marriage he had four children, two daughters and two sons; Ghazi-Uddin and Nasir Jung. From other wives he had four more sons; Salabat Jung, Nizam Ali Khan-(later Nizam II), Basalat Jung, and Mogal Ali Khan. Death Due to continuous engagement in restoring internal conflicts and resolving increasing treats of neighboring Marathas, he was engaged in extensive tour of his domain and in this process as soon as in May 1748 he arrived in Burhanpur, he caught cold and flu that deteriorated his health. Realizing death upon him, the Nizam dictated his last testament (wasiyyatnama), spanning 17 clauses in the presence of his available family members and close confidants. He died on 1 June 1748 aged 77 at Burhanpur, and was buried at mazaar of Shaikh Burhan ud-din Gharib Chisti, Khuldabad, near Aurangabad, the place where Nizams mentor Aurangazeb is also buried.


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Ismail Mazari

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Very good information.


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