top of page


Akbar III 1948-2012
Stacked Wooden Logs


After 1550 the Abulkhayrid appanages were engaged in almost incessant wars with one another, which continued for three decades. These wars resulted in the elimination, one by one, of three competing clans of appanage holders: first, the descendants of Shah Budaq in central Mavarannahr, and then the descendants of Köchkünji as well as those of Söyünjük. The winner in these wars was the clan of Janibek. #Abdallah b. Iskandar, a grandson of
Janibek, who initially ruled the small appanage of Miyankal, captured Bukhara in 1557, with the support of the Naqshbandi sheykhs of the city, and made it his capital. After the death of Nawruz Ahmad (Baraq) Khan b. Söyünjük in Tashkent in 1556, #Abdallah’s uncle Pir-Muhammad was proclaimed khan in Balkh, but #Abdallah, taking advantage of an insurrection in Balkh in 1561, had his father, Iskandar, proclaimed the supreme khan
of the Özbeks.
The latter remained a figurehead, while #Abdallah became the actual ruler; in 1583, after the death of Iskandar, #Abdallah became khan. In a long series of wars that preceded his elevation to the position of khan, #Abdallah annexed all the appanages, and their rulers were mostly killed or executed in the process, often with their entire families. The most stubborn resistance was offered by Baba Sultan, son of Nowruz Ahmad and the ruler of Tashkent and Turkestan, who was killed in 1582; in the course of his last campaign against Baba Sultan Abdallah penetrated deep into the Dasht-i Qïpchaq and reached the Ulu-tag. After abolishing the appanages of other branches of the Abulkhayrids and creating a single unified state (in which there were still some appanages, but ruled by the members of #Abdallah’s own family), #Abdallah Khan began an expansion beyond the borders of this state, first to Badakhshan and then to Khorasan. In Badakhshan #Abdallah intervened in the feuds between the Timurid ruler Suleman Mirza and the supporters of his grandson, and in 1584, in a campaign that lasted ten months, he conquered this province (which at that time included also Kunduz, Taliban, and Kulab) and annexed it to the Balkh appanage held by his son #Abd al-Mu"min. In the conquest of Khorasan #Abdallah Khan took advantage of the difficulties experienced at that time by Safavid Iran, both internally and in the war with the Ottomans. The Khorasan campaign of #Abdallah began with the conquest of Herat, which was stormed in 1588 after a nine-month siege. The chief role in this conquest belonged to #Abd al-Mu"min, who also commanded the troops in all subsequent conquests in Khorasan, while his father did not participate in these campaigns. Instead, #Abdallah Khan undertook the conquest of Khorezm in 1593 (a campaign he had briefly attempted for the first time in 1576), causing the #Arabshahid Hajim Khan to flee to Iran, and again, after a rebellion, in 1595-96.
He also invaded Kashghar and Yarkend in 1594-95, but without lasting results. In the campaigns in Iran that took place after the conquest of Herat, an important role was played by the three princes who had come to Bukhara from Haji-Tarkhan (Astrakhan’) after its conquest by Ivan the Terrible of Moscow in 1556: Din Muhammad Sultan and his two brothers, Baqi Muhammad and Vali Muhammad, from among the descendants of Toqay-Timur (the thirteenth son of Jochi). During the ten years following the conquest of Heart, 1588-98, they conquered Kohistan and Sistani and raided Fars.

Rate This BookDon’t love itNot greatGoodGreatLove itRate This Book

Your content has been submitted

Post Comment
Ratings & Review
Click To Close Comment Box
Click To Post Your Comment
Show Reviews

average rating is 5 out of 5

Ismail Mazari

average rating is null out of 5

Very good information.

average rating is null out of 5

Shah Sharaf Barlas


The Mughal Maps takes you back to a historical time of different eras, where you can see historical events based on the map and location of the event with all the details of the area of that time. You can add your maps to The Mughal Library here.

Mughal Library brings readers of our history and related subjects on one platform. our goal is to share knowledge between researchers and students in a friendly environment.

bottom of page