BUKHARA (CITY) IN THE 19TH CENTURY
Akbar III 1948-2012
"An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel. This is stated on Page no 81 of this book.
A settlement on the present site of the city of Bukhara existed as early as the 4th or 3rd century B.C. Bukhara became one of the chief cities of Soghd, and has remained on the same site down to the present time, despite the destruction caused over the centuries by fires and wars, including the Mongol invasion. Bukhara became especially important in the history of Central Asia from the 9th century, as the capital of the Samanids; later it often competed for prominence with Samarqand, but since the time of Abdallah Khan II (from 1557) and until the Russian conquest it was the capital of the Abulkhayrids and then of the Ashtarkhanids and Manghïts, and it became the largest and most prosperous city of Central Asia. Its history and especially its conditions under the Manghïts (19th–early 20th centuries) have also been better studied than those of any other city of Central Asia.
The ancient name of the city was, apparently, Numijket, while Bukhara was the name of the oasis, of which Numijket was the capital; gradually, in the early Islamic period, Bukhara became the name of the city. The historical center of the city (shahristan), located to the east of the citadel (ark), was rectangular in shape and surrounded by a wall that had seven gates; this wall has not survived, but its location has been well established.
Later,a wall encompassing the suburbs (rabads) was built; it was destroyed and rebuilt several times. The existing city wall was built by #Abd al-#Aziz Sultan (1539-1550) and then extended by #Abdallah Khan (1557-1598). In 1752-53 it was reinforced by a new wall built next to it. This mud wall, about 5-6 m thick at the base and about 10 m high, was about 12 km long and had 11 gates; most of the wall still exists.
The folding gates had guards and were locked at sunset and opened at sunrise. The citadel served as the official residence of the rulers of Bukhara, down to the time of the Manghït amirs. Besides the audience hall of the amir, it had numerous government offices and rooms for officials and courtiers; these structures did not survive the Russian revolution and the fall of the Manghïts.
The city was divided into guzars—city quarters (or neighborhood communities), whose number in the early 20th century was 220; they were the main administrative units of the city. In some city quarters the population was more or less homogenous, consisting of the members of one trade (artisans or merchants), or people of the same ethnic origin, but in others it was mixed, and usually members of groups of higher social status lived intermixed with the commoners. The population of a guzar formed a community with its own elected elders; the center of communal life of the guzar was its mosque. The guzars were loosely grouped into 12 larger territorial units called jarib or mahalla (these were, apparently, the original main subdivisions of the city, which had mostly lost their administrative meaning by the 19th century).
The exact figure of the city’s population is not known, but according to modern estimates it was around 80,000-85,000. Ethnically, the population of the city was overwhelmingly Tajik, although there were also groups of Özbeks, especially among the government officials and the military, and there were some Özbek groups who were linguistically assimilated by the Tajiks. A substantial group (probably about 8,000) was formed by the Shiites, mostly the descendants of the inhabitants of Merv deported to Bukhara by the amir Shah Murad at the end of the 18th century; they were called Irani or Marvi, and they lived partly intermixed with the rest of the population. Another, separate, group was formed by the Jews, who numbered about 4,500; they spoke a dialect of Tajik and lived in three city quarters in the southern part of the city
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Very good information.
Shah Sharaf Barlas
If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.