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Map of India under the Later Mughals

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1750
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Internet Archive
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Drawing
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Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1748–54
Stacked Wooden Logs

Description

The Crisis of the Empire and the Later Mughals

You saw how the Mughal Empire reached the height of its success and started facing a variety of crises towards the closing years of the seventeenth century. These were caused by a number of factors. Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan. Under his successors, the efficiency of the imperial administration broke down. It became increasingly difficult for the later Mughal emperors to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars. Nobles appointed as

governors (subadars) often controlled the offices of revenue and military administration (diwani and faujdari) as well. This gave them extraordinary political, economic and military powers over vast regions of the Mughal Empire. As the governors consolidated their control over the provinces, the periodic remission of revenue to the capital declined. Peasant and zamindari rebellions in many parts of northern and western India added to these problems.
These revolts were sometimes caused by the pressures of mounting taxes. At other times they were attempts
by powerful chieftains to consolidate their own positions. Mughal authority had been challenged by rebellious groups in the past as well. But these groups were now able to seize the economic resources of the region to consolidate their positions. The Mughal emperors after Aurangzeb were unable to arrest the gradual shifting of political and economic authority into the hands of provincial governors, local chieftains and other groups.

Mughal Empire
https://www.mughallibrary.com/ebooks2020/Indian-Society-And-The-Making-of-The-British-Empire

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