THE QAZAQ TRIBES IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY During Mughal Emperor Akbar III 1948-2012
Akbar III 1948-2012
"An Historical Atlas of Central Asia" written by Yuri Bregel. This is stated on Page no 77 of this book.
The Qazaqs inherited the political and social structure of the nomads of the Dasht-i Qïpchaq, which had existed since the Mongol conquest. At the head of their society were the Jochids, the direct agnatic descendants of the eldest son of Chingis Khan, Jochi; they were called aq söyek, “white bone,” and formed a closed estate that was not part of the Qazaq tribal structure. Only the members of this clan, who had the title of töre or sultan, could be elected as khans, sovereign rulers; they also had other privileges that set them aside from the rest of the Qazaqs. Each zhuz had its own khan, elected by an assembly of the sultans and prominent tribal chieftains, and sometimes there was more than one khan in the same zhuz.
At the head of the Qazaq tribes and their subdivisions stood chieftains with the title of biy, traditional among the nomads of the Dasht-i Qïpchaq (cf. map 35). They also served as judges by common law (adat), which was codified by the khan Tawke at the end of the 17th or early 18th century. Distinguished military leaders could gain the title of batïr (lit. “hero,” from Mongol bahadur), which could be combined with the status (and the title) of
a biy. Batïrs became prominent in Qazaq society in the 18th century, during the wars with the Jungians and the erosion of the authority of the khans and sultans. With the final Russian annexation of the Qazaq steppes in the first half of the 19th century, the position of the khan was abolished, and the sultans lost their privileged legal status
The economy of the great majority of the Qazaqs was based on nomadic stock-breeding, combining sheep, horses, camels, and cattle; the mix of these animals in the herds could vary greatly, depending on the natural conditions of specific regions. The natural conditions determined also the range of seasonal migrations, whose radius could vary from about 100 km a year to as much as 1,000-1,500 km.
The Russian colonization of the northern steppe areas, which developed gradually, but especially intensively in the 19th century, deprived the Qazaqs of some of their best summer pastures; the Russian administrative reforms of the first half of the 19th century also caused some disruptions of traditional migrations. Nevertheless, the great majority of the Qazaqs remained nomadic even after the revolution in Russia, until their forced collectivization and sedentarization in the early 1930s, which caused huge losses of livestock, famine, and the flight of many Qazaqs to China (see map 47).
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Very good information.
Shah Sharaf Barlas
If possible anyone have shijra family tree of Mughal Barlas traib of Attock Pakistan please share with me.